safe generic viagra Skip to main page content home current issue archives feedback subscriptions email alerts help search for keyword: go advanced search user name password sign in fighting iron deficiency anemia with iron-rich rice paola lucca , phd, richard hurrell , phd and ingo potrykus , phd institute for plant science ethz, zurich (p. L. , i. P. ), switzerland institute of food science ethz, laboratory for human nutrition, ruschlikon (r. H. ), switzerland address reprint requests to: paola lucca, phd, institute for research in biomedicine, ch-6500 bellinzona, switzerland. E-mail: paola. Lucca{at}irb. cheap viagra uk next day delivery viagra sale uk generic viagra online viagra online no rx viagra cheap viagra cheap online viagra online buy cheap viagra buy viagra online Unisi. Ch â  next section abstract objective: iron deficiency is estimated to affect about 30% of the world population. Iron supplementation in the form of tablets and food fortification has not been successful in developing countries, and iron deficiency is still the most important deficiency related to malnutrition. Here we present experiments that aim to increase the iron content in rice endosperm and to improve its absorption in the human intestine by means of genetic engineering. Methods: we first introduced a ferritin gene from phaseolus vulgaris into rice grains, increasing their iron content up to twofold. To increase iron bioavailability, we introduced a thermo-tolerant phytase from aspergillus fumigatus into the rice endosperm. In addition, as cysteine peptides are considered major enhancers of iron absorption, we over-expressed the endogenous cysteine-rich metallothionein-like protein. Results: the content of cysteine residues increased about sevenfold and the phytase level in the grains about one hundred and thirtyfold, giving a phytase activity sufficient to completely degrade phytic acid in a simulated digestion experiment. Conclusions: this rice, with higher iron content, rich in phytase and cysteine-peptide has a great potential to substantially improve iron nutrition in those populations where iron deficiency is so widely spread. Rice iron bioavailability transgenic previous section next section introduction the prevalence of iron deficiency is estimated to be about 30% of the world population [1], making iron by far the most widespread nutrient deficiency world-wide. The functional effects of iron deficiency anemia result both from a reduction in the circulating hemoglobin and in the iron-containing enzymes and myoglobin. The major consequences are reduced psychomotor and mental development in infants [2], poor pregnancy outcome [3], decreased immune function [4], tiredness and poor work performance [5]. The amount of bioavailable iron is dependent both on the iron intake and absorption. Dietary iron in developing countries consists primarily of non-heme iron, whose poor absorption is c.


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